Ocean artificial upwelling

Global warming is predicted to increase ocean stratification, decrease the supply of nutrient-rich deep waters to the sunlit surface layer and thereby cause a decline in ocean productivity, particularly in low to mid latitudes (IPCC 2019). Active transport of nutrient-rich deep water to the sunlit surface layer, termed artificial upwelling, can partly compensate for this trend. While the benefit of this approach for the marine food web is undisputed, it’s potential in sequestering CO2 is considered to be negligible. Recent studies on artificial upwelling, however, revealed a much higher potential for CO2 removal than previously expected.

Test-ArtUp aims to examine, in a unique transdisciplinary approach, the use of artificial upwelling for the purpose of CO2 removal with respect to its technical application and optimization, its capacity for additional CO2 uptake and long-term storage, the associated environmental risks and ecological side effects, the related economic benefits and trade-offs and the legal constraints and governance requirements. Dissemination of the project results will be achieved in a two-way stakeholder dialogue, facilitated through a stakeholder reference group, and through target-ed communication and dissemination channels with selected audiences, offering group-specific dissemination products. The results of Test-ArtUp will be synthesized to provide knowledge-based advice on the possible implementation of artificial upwelling for CO2 removal and will con-tribute to developing a Marine Carbon Roadmap in accordance with the UN Sustainable Development Goals, particularly SDG 2 (Zero Hunger), SDG 13 (Climate Action), and SDG 14 (Life below Water).

Outline of the project structure highlighting the interactions within the project, i.e. between the work packages and the Stakeholder Reference Group (SRG), and showing the linkages with other related projects (left panel) and relevant society sectors (right panel).


GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel

Prof. Ulf Riebesell (Coordinator) // Dr. Wolfgang Koeve // B.ing. Jan Hennke


Kiel University of Applied Sciences

Prof. Kai Graf


Kiel University (CAU)

Prof. Marie-Catherine Riekhof


Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)

Dr. Wilfried Rickels


Universität Hamburg

Prof. Alexander Proelß

Sponsored by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research